More on Frailty

Interested in frailty? Here are some informative readings:


What is frailty about?

Clegg, A., Young, J., Iliffe, S., Rikkert, M. O. & Rockwood, K. (2013). Frailty in elderly people. Lancet (London, England), 381(9868), 752–62. (12)62167-9 

Dent, E., Kowal, P. & Hoogendijk, E. O. (2016). Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: A review. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 31, 3-10. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2016.03.007

Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Féart, C., Mann, G., Viña, J., Chatterji, S., Chodzko-Zajko, W., Vega, E. (2012). Searching for an operational definition of frailty: A Delphi method based consensus statement. The Frailty Operative Definition-Consensus Conference Project. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 68(1), 62-67. doi:10.1093/gerona/gls119 


What are the costs of frailty?

Bock, J., König, H., Brenner, H., Haefeli, W. E., Quinzler, R., Matschinger, H., . . . Heider, D. (2016). Associations of frailty with health care costs – results of the ESTHER cohort study. BMC Health Services Research, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12913-016-1360-3

García-Nogueras, I., Aranda-Reneo, I., Peña-Longobardo, L. M., Oliva-Moreno, J. & Abizanda, P. (2016). Use of health resources and healthcare costs associated with frailty: The FRADEA study. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 21(2), 207-214. doi:10.1007/s12603-016-0727-9


What are the benefits of exercise in frailty?

Cadore, E. L., Rodríguez-Mañas, L., Sinclair, A. & Izquierdo, M. (2013). Effects of different exercise interventions on risk of falls, gait ability, and balance in physically frail older adults: A systematic review. Rejuvenation Research, 16(2), 105-114. doi:10.1089/rej.2012.1397

Theou, O., Stathokostas, L., Roland, K. P., Jakobi, J. M., Patterson, C., Vandervoort, A. A. & Jones, G. R. (2011). The Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions for the Management of Frailty: A Systematic Review. Journal of Aging Research, 2011, 1-19. doi:10.4061/2011/569194


What is the importance of nutrition in frailty?

Goisser, S., Guyonnet, S. & Volkert, D. (2016). The role of nutrition in frailty: An overview. The Journal of Frailty & Aging, 5(2), 74–77. 

León-Muñoz, L. M., Guallar-Castillón, P., López-García, E. & Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2014). Mediterranean diet and risk of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 15(12), 899-903. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2014.06.013

Bruyère, O., Cavalier, E., Buckinx, F. & Reginster, J. (2017). Relevance of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and therapy of frailty. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 20(1), 26-29. doi:10.1097/mco.0000000000000334 

Cesari, M., Nobili, A. & Vitale, G. (2016). Frailty and sarcopenia: From theory to clinical implementation and public health relevance. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 35, 1-9. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2016.07.021


Actions against frailty

Ministry of Health Spain (2014). Consensus document on frailty and falls prevention among the elderly. The prevention and health promotion strategy of the Spanish NHS. Available at:  [Last access: 13/12/2017]

Morley, J. E., Vellas, B., Kan, G. A., Anker, S. D., Bauer, J. M., Bernabei, R., . . . Walston, J. (2013). Frailty consensus: A call to action. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(6), 392-397. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2013.03.022

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2015). Dementia, disability and frailty in later life – mid-life approaches to delay or prevent onset. NICE Guideline [NG16]. Available at:  [Last access: 14/12/2017]

Puts, M. T., Toubasi, S., Andrew, M. K., Ashe, M. C., Ploeg, J., Atkinson, E., Mcgilton, K. (2017). Interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults: a scoping review of the literature and international policies. Age and Ageing. doi:10.1093/ageing/afw247


Ageing, health and frailty

European Union (2017). The 2018 Ageing Report: Underlying assumptions & projection methodologies. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. European Commission, Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs, Brussels. Available at:  [Last access: 9/1/2018]

World Health Organization (2015). World report on ageing and health. Luxembourg. Available at:  [Last access: 13/12/2017]

World Health Organization (2017). Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE). Guidelines on community-level interventions to manage declines in intrinsic capacity. Switzerland. Available at:  [Last access: 18/12/2017]